Harvester or combine harvester is an adaptable machine designed for harvesting grain crops in the field.
Combine harvester is a machine designed for harvesting, threshing, separating, cleaning and collecting grains like combine operations at time and through one machine while moving through the standing crops in the field. Bagging arrangements can be provided with a pick up attachment. This may be self propelled or tractor operated.
The cost of combine harvesters in India is Rs 15.50 – 26.70 Lakh. If we compare the price of a combine harvester with a manual process, the price is less and helps to save a lot of money. This machine makes all processes faster and helps to increase farm productivity.
The main functions of a combine are:
- Cutting the standing crops.
- Feeding the cut crops to threshing unit.
- Threshing the crops.
- Cleaning the grains from straw, separating straw and grains.
- Collecting the grains in a container or a cylinder.
Popular Combine Harvester in India:
- Kartar 4000 Harvester
- New Holland TC5.30 Harvester
- Mahindra Arjun 605 Harvester
- Kubota Harvesking DC-68G-HK Harvester
- Preet 987 Harvester
The combine harvester machine is made up of different components. These components are as follows:
- Header 10. Chauffeur sieve
- Reel 11. Grain sieve
- Cutter bar 12. Grain auger
- Elevator canvas 13. Tailing auger
- Feeder canvas 14. Tail board
- Feeding drum 15. Straw spreader
- Threshing drum 16. Return conveyor
- Concave unit 17. shaker
- Fan 18. Grain elevator
- Grain container
A header is used for cutting and gathering or collecting the grain and delivering it to the threshing cylinder. This straw is pushed back on the platform with the help of the reel. Small combine harvester machines use scoop type headers, and the large combines use T type headers with auger tables. In the harvesting process the cutting unit performs a lead role which uses a cutter bar similar to that of a mower. The knife has a notched or sawlike edge to prevent the straw from slipping at the time of operation. Due to the edges of the knife the straw didn’t slip. There is a useful or easy cutting platform which is provided with a reel and canvas.
The reel is made of wooden slats which are helpful in feeding the crops to the cutting platform. The reel gets power or strength from suitable gears and shafts. The reel revolves or pass in front of the cutter bar, during field operation.The reel pulls the standing crops or moves it towards the cutting unit. We can adjust the reels; they are adjustable or movable in up and down as in or out. The cutter bar of the combine harvester operates like a cutter bar of a mower helping in sharp cutting.
The threshing process happened between the cylinder and concave unit of the combine harvester. The basic components of the threshing unit of the combine harvester are like a power thresher. In this combine harvester machine the crops are threshed, the threshed materials move to a straw rake. These rakes continue oscillating and separating grains.
The cleaning unit consists of a number of sieves and fans. The cleaning takes place on these ieves with the help of a fan. The grains which are not threshed pass through a tailing auger and go for repeat threshing. Grais are collected from a hopper provided at the suitable place.
The fan is adjusted or fixed like the chaff is placed. These are rushed off to the rear side of the machine. The size of the combine is indicated by the width of the cut it covers in the field.
Key Points of consideration:
Before using a combine harvester the machine operator must go through formal training and obtain a driver’s licence to get the best use out of the implement.
Some conditions need to be checked before using a combine harvester machine:
- Field condition
- Crop condition
- Moisture content
- Height of crop cutting
FAQ About Combine Harvester:
Question: What is the price range of combine harvesters in India?
Answer: The price range of combine harvesters is 15.50 – 26.70 Lakh.
Question: What are the different components of combine harvesters?
Answer: Header, Chauffeur sieve, Reel, Grain sieve, Cutter bar, Elevator canvas, Feeder canvas and so on.
Question: What are the top models of combine harvesters?
Answer: Kartar 4000 Harvester, New Holland TC5.30 Harvester, Mahindra Arjun 605 Harvester, Kubota Harvesking DC-68G-HK Harvester, Preet 987 Harvester.